CHAPTER VII. ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT (1789-1793).

69. REFERENCES.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES. - W. E. Foster, References to Presidential Administrations, 1-5; References to the Constitution, 18, 19; Justin Winsor, Narrative and Critical History, VII. 299-309, 323-329, 413-418, 446, 454, VIII. App.; P. L. Ford, Bibliotheca Hamiltonia; Channing and Hart, Guide, secs. 157-161.

HISTORICAL MAPS. - Nos. 1 and 3, this volume, and No. 1 in W. Wilson, Division and Reunion (Epoch Maps, Nos. 6, 7, and 8); T. MacCoun, Historical Geography; Scribner, Statistical Atlas, Plate 13.

GENERAL ACCOUNTS. - J. B. McMaster, People of the United States, I. 525-604, II. 1-88; R. Hildreth, United States, IV. 25-410; J. Schouler, United States, I. 74-220; H. Von Holst,Constitutional History, I. 64- 111; T. Pitkin, Political and Civil History, II. 317-355; Gen. Tucker, United States, I. 384-503; J. S. Landon, Constitutional History, 97- 119; Bryant and Gay, Popular History, IV. 100-123.

SPECIAL HISTORIES. - George Gibbs, Memoirs of the Administrations of Washington and Adams, I. 28-88; J. C. Hamilton, History of the Republic, IV.; W. G. Sumner, Alexander Hamilton; H. C. Adams, Taxation in the United States (1789-1816); W. G. Sumner, Financier and Finances of the American Revolution, II. chs. xvii.-xxxii.; J. T. Morse, Life of Hamilton, I. chs. vii.-xii.; M. P. Follet,Speaker; H. C. Lodge, Hamilton, 88-152, and Washington, II. 1-128; J. T. Morse, John Adams, 241-264, and Jefferson, 96-145; S. H. Gay, Madison, 128-192.

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTS. - W. Maclay, Journal (1789-1791) (a racy account of the Senate in the First Congress); Thomas Jefferson, Anas, in Works, ix. 87-185 (confessedly made up twenty-five years later); William Sullivan, Familiar Letters on Public Characters, 36-47 (written in reply to Jefferson); Joel Barlow, Vision of Columbus, 1787 (an epic poem); correspondence in works of Washington, Hamilton, Madison, Jefferson, and John Jay; newspapers, especially the Columbian Centinel, Gazette of the United States, National Gazette. - Reprints in American History told by Contemporaries, III.

70. GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1789.

[Boundary questions.]

What were the physical, social, and political conditions under which the new government was to be established? In 1789 the exterior boundaries of the country were loosely defined by treaty (sec. 46), but were not yet marked out, and there were several serious controversies. From the mouth of the St, Croix River to the head of the Connecticut the boundary was in confusion, and no progress had been made towards settling it. The water- line through the St. Lawrence and the Lakes was still unadjusted. It was found that the headwaters of the Mississippi lay to the south of the Lake of the Woods, so that there was a gap on the northwest. On the south Spain disputed the right of Great Britain to establish the boundary, insisted that her own undoubted settlements lay within the territory claimed by the United States, and declined to grant the free navigation of the lower Mississippi to the sea. Still more humiliating was the presence of British garrisons at Fort Niagara, Detroit, and other points within the undisputed boundaries of the United States.

[Interior boundaries.]