CHAPTER XLVII. PUBLIC BUILDINGS, SQUARES, ETC.
Rome was built on seven hills, - the Palatine, the Aventine, the Capitoline, the Esquiline (the largest), the Quirínal, the Viminal, and the Coelian.
There were various public squares (forum = square or park). Some were places of resort for public business, and most were adorned with porticos. The most celebrated square was the Forum Románum, or simply The Forum. There were also the Forum Caesaris and Forum Trajáni. Some served as markets; as Forum Boarium, the cattle market; Forum Suarium, the hog market, etc.
Temples were numerous. The Pantheon (temple of all the gods), built by Agrippa and restored by Hadrian, was dedicated to Jupiter. It was situated outside of the city, in the Campus Martius, and is now used as a Christian church. The Temple of Apollo Palatínus, built by Augustus, was on the Palatine Hill. It contained a library, which was founded by Augustus. The Temple of Aesculapius was on an island in the Tiber; that of Concordia, on the slope of the Capitoline Hill, was dedicated in 377 B.C., and restored by Tiberius. The Temple of Janus was an arched passage east of the Forum, the gates of which were open during war. Up to the time of Ovid the gates had been closed but three times, once in Numa's reign, again at the close of the Second Punic War, and after the battle of Actium. Janus was one of the oldest Latin divinities, and was represented with a face in front and another on the back of his head. From him is named the month of January.
There were several temples of Jupiter, the most famous of which was that of Jupiter Optimus, Maximus, or Capitolínus, built during the dynasty of the Tarquins, and splendidly adorned. (See Chapter V.) There were also numerous temples of Juno, of Mars, and of other deities.
The COLOSSÉUM was the largest building in Rome.
There were three theatres; that of Pompey, of Marcellus, and of Balbus; and several circuses, the most famous of which was the Circus Maximus.
The BASILICAE were halls of justice (court-houses). The most important was the Basilica Julia, begun by Caesar and finished by Augustus, which was situated on the south side of the Forum, and the foundations of which can still be seen.
The CURIA, or Senate-house, was in the Forum. Each of the thirty curiae had a place of meeting, called also a curia, where were discussed public questions pertaining to politics, finance, or religion.
The PUBLIC BATHS were numerous. There were Thermae (hot baths) of Nero, of Titus, of Trajan, of Caracalla, and of others, ruins of which still exist.
Pure water was brought into the city from the surrounding hills by fourteen different aqueducts, all of which were well built, and three of which are still in use. The first aqueduct (Aqua Appia) was built about 313 B.C., by Appius Claudius.
SEWERS intersected Rome in all directions, and some were of immense size. The CLOÁCA MAXIMA, built by Tarquin, was the largest, and is still in use. Its innermost arch has a diameter of fourteen feet.
There are said to have been twenty TRIUMPHAL ARCHES, of which five now remain, 1. The ARCH OF DRUSUS, on the Appian Way, erected in honor of Claudius Drusus. 2. The ARCH OF TITUS, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, built by Titus to commemorate his conquest of Judaea, The bas-reliefs on this arch represent the spoils taken from the temple at Jerusalem, carried in triumphal procession. 3. The ARCH OF SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, built by the Senate in 207 A. D., at the end of the Via Sacra, in honor of the Emperor and his two sons for their conquest of the Parthians and Arabians. 4. The ARCH OF GALLIÉNUS. 5. The ARCH OF CONSTANTINE.
There were two famous MAUSOLÉA, that of Augustus, now in ruins, and that of Hadrian, which, stripped of its ornaments, is now the Castle of San Angelo.
The COLUMNS commemorating persons or events were numerous. The most remarkable of these were erected for naval victories, and called COLUMNAE ROSTRÁTAE. The one of Duilius, in honor of the victory at Mylae (261 B. C.), still stands. It has three ship-beaks attached to each side. Columns were built in honor of several Emperors. That of Trajan is perhaps best known.
The COLUMNA MILLIARIA was a milestone set up by Augustus in the Forum, from which all distances on the different public roads were measured. It was called Milliarium Aureum, or the golden milestone.