Ancient World

The Persian Generals enter Europe. - Invasion of Naxos, Carystus, Eretria. - The Athenians Demand the Aid of Sparta. - The Result of their Mission and the Adventure of their Messenger. - The Persians advance to Marathon. - The Plain Described. - Division of Opinion in the Athenian Camp. - The Advice of Miltiades prevails. - The Dream of Hippias. - The Battle of Marathon.

War between Megara and Corinth. - Megara and Pegae garrisoned by Athenians. - Review of Affairs at the Persian Court. - Accession of Artaxerxes. - Revolt of Egypt under Inarus. - Athenian Expedition to assist Inarus. - Aegina besieged. - The Corinthians defeated. - Spartan Conspiracy with the Athenian Oligarchy. - Battle of Tanagra. - Campaign and Successes of Myronides. - Plot of the Oligarchy against the Republic. - Recall of Cimon. - Long Walls completed. - Aegina reduced. - Expedition under Tolmides. - Ithome surrenders. - The Insurgents are settled at Naupactus.

The work, a portion of which is now presented to the reader, has occupied me many years - though often interrupted in its progress, either by more active employment, or by literary undertakings of a character more seductive. These volumes were not only written, but actually in the hands of the publisher before the appearance, and even, I believe, before the announcement of the first volume of Mr. Thirlwall's History of Greece, or I might have declined going over any portion of the ground cultivated by that distinguished scholar [1].

[1] In their passage through the press I have, however, had many opportunities to consult and refer to Mr. Thirlwall's able and careful work.

Change of Manners in Athens. - Begun under the Pisistratidae. - Effects of the Persian War, and the intimate Connexion with Ionia. - The Hetaerae. - The Political Eminence lately acquired by Athens. - The Transfer of the Treasury from Delos to Athens. - Latent Dangers and Evils. - First, the Artificial Greatness of Athens not supported by Natural Strength. - Secondly, her pernicious Reliance on Tribute. - Thirdly, Deterioration of National Spirit commenced by Cimon in the Use of Bribes and Public Tables. - Fourthly, Defects in Popular Courts of Law. - Progress of General Education.

Situation and Soil of Attica. - The Pelasgians its earliest Inhabitants. - Their Race and Language akin to the Grecian. - Their varying Civilization and Architectural Remains. - Cecrops. - Were the earliest Civilizers of Greece foreigners or Greeks? - The Foundation of Athens. - The Improvements attributed to Cecrops. - The Religion of the Greeks cannot be reduced to a simple System. - Its Influence upon their Character and Morals, Arts and Poetry. - The Origin of Slavery and Aristocracy.

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