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Reference

  See bibliography, chap. vii.-ix. Calendar of State Papers, 
  Ireland
 (James I.), 5 vols., 1872-80. Idem (Charles I.), 5 vols. 
  Calendar of the Clarendon Papers, 2 vols., 1869-72. Carte, 

  Burke, The Irish Priests in the Penal Times (1660-1760), 1914 (a 
  valuable book, based on the State Papers preserved in the Record 
  Office, the Bodleian Library and the British Museum). Curry, An 

  See bibliography, chap. vi. (g). Aubry, La Methode des etudes 
  ecclesiastiques dans nos seminaires depuis le concile de Trente
 , 
  1900. Picot, Essai historique sur l'influence de la religion en 

The fifteenth century may be regarded as a period of transition from the ideals of the Middle Ages to those of modern times. The world was fast becoming more secular in its tendencies, and, as a necessary result, theories and principles that had met till then with almost universal acceptance in literature, in art, in education, and in government, were challenged by many as untenable.

                     (a) The Renaissance.

                    LUTHERIANISM AND ZWINGLIANISM

                     (a) In Germany.

                     (a) In Switzerland.

For more than thirty years the new religious movement continued to spread with alarming rapidity. Nation after nation either fell away from the centre of unity or wavered as to the attitude that should be adopted towards the conflicting claims of Rome, Wittenberg, and Geneva, till at last it seemed not unlikely that Catholicism was to be confined within the territorial boundaries of Italy, Spain, and Portugal.

  Henrion, Histoire generale des missions catholiques depuis le 
  XIIIe siecle
, 2 vols., 1841. Marshall, The Christian Missions, 
  2 vols., 2nd edition, 1863. Hahn, Geschichte der Katholischen 

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