CONFUCIUS: after 500 B.C. premier of Lu; traced his descent back through the Chou dynasty vassal ruling family of Sung to the Shang dynasty family.

TSZ-CH'AN: elder contemporary of Confucius; premier of Cheng; traced his descent through the vassal ruling family of Cheng to the Chou dynasty family: date of death variously stated.

KWAN-TSE: died between 648 and 643 B.C., variously stated; premier of Ts'i; traced his descent to the same clan as the ruling dynasty of Chou.

YEN-TSZ: died 500 B.C.; premier of Ts'i; traced his descent to a local clan, apparently eastern barbarian by origin.

WEI YANG: died 338 B.C.; premier of Ts'in; was a concubine-born prince of the vassal state of Wei, and was thus of the imperial Chou dynasty clan.

SHUH HIANG: lawyer and minister of Tsin; belonged to one of the "great families" of Tsin; was contemporary with Tsz-ch'an. HIANG SUeH: diplomat of the state of Sung; pedigree not ascertained,

KI-CHAH: son, brother, and uncle of successive barbarian kings of Wu, whose ancestors, however, were the same ancestors as the orthodox imperial rulers of the Chou dynasty; contemporary of Tsz- ch'an.



1. MARQUESS OF Ts'i (not of imperial Chou clan, perhaps of "Eastern Barbarian" origin).

2. MARQUESS OF TSIN (imperial Chou clan).

3. DUKE OF SUNG (imperial Shang dynasty descent),

4. "KING" OF T'SU (semi-barbarian, but with remote imperial Chinese legendary descent).

5. EARL OF TS'IN (semi-Tartar, with legendary descent from remote imperial Chinese).

6. "KING" OF Wu (semi-barbarian, but of imperial Chou family descent).

7. "KING" OF YUeEH (barbarian, but with legendary descent from ultra-remote imperial Chinese).




Beginning of dated history - Size of ancient China - Parcelled out into fiefs - Fiefs correspond to modern hien districts - Mesne lords and sub-vassals - Method of migration and colonizing - Course of the Yellow River in 842 B.C. - Distant fiefs in Shan Tung and Chih Li provinces of to-day - A river which subsequently became part of the Grand Canal - The Hwai River system of waters - Europeans always regard China from the sea inwards - Corea, Japan, and Liao Tung unknown in 842 B.C. except, perhaps, to the vassal state in Peking plain - Orthodox Chinese adopting barbarian usages in Shan Tung - Eastern barbarians on the coast to Shanghai - No knowledge of South or West Asia - Left bank of Yellow River was mostly Tartar, except in South Shan Si - Ancient capital in Shan Si - Ancient colonization of the Wei River valleys in Shen Si - Possibilities of Western ideas having been carried by Tartar horsemen from Persia and Turkestan - Traditions of western, eastern, and southern intercourse previous to 842 B.C. - Early knowledge of the River Yang-tsz and its three mouths - Explorations by ancient emperors - Development of China followed much the same normal course as that of Greece or England.



Character of the early colonizing Chinese satraps - Revolt of the western satrap and flight of the Emperor in 842 B.C. - Daughter of a later satrap marries the Emperor - Tartars mix up with questions of imperial succession and kill the Emperor - Transfer of the imperial metropolis from Shen Si to Ho Nan - The Chou dynasty, dating from 1122 B.C. - Before its conquest, the vassal house of Chou occupied the same relation to the imperial dynasty of Shang that the Wardens of the Western Marches, or Princes of Ts'in, did in turn to the imperial dynasty of Chou - The Shang dynasty had in 1766 B.C., for like reasons, supplanted the Hia dynasty-No events of great interest recorded in limited area of China before 771 B.C. - Decline of the imperial power until its extinction in 250 B.C. - The Five Tyrant or Protector period - Natural movement to keep pace with political development - Easier system of writing - Development of trade and industry - Living interests clash with extinct aspirations - From 722 B.C. to 480 B.C. is the period of change covered by Confucius' history



The state of Tsin in Shan Si - In 771 B.C.: its ruler escorts the Emperor to his new capital - Only in 671 B.C. does Confucius mention Tsin - Divided from Ts'in by the Yellow River - Important difference between the sounds Tsin and Ts'in - Importance of the whole Yellow River as a natural boundary - The state of Ts'i also engaged in buffer work against Tartar inroads - Remote origin of Ts'i-Ts'in, Tsin, and Ts'i grow powerful as the Emperor grows weaker - The state of Yen in the Peking plain - The founder of Yen immortalized in song - Complete absence of tradition concerning Yen's origin - Its possible relations with Corea and Japan - Centre of political gravity transferred for ever to the north - Tartar movements in Asia generally 800-600 B.C. - Never was a Tarter empire - Reason for using the loose word "Tartars" - Race divisions then probably very much as now - Attempt to classify the Tartars in definite groups - Ch'wan unknown by any name - Nothing at all was known in China of the north and west: a fortiori of Central Asia



The collapse of the Emperor led to restlessness in the south too - The Jungle country south of the River Han - Ancient origin of its kings - Claim to equality - Buffer state to the south - Ruling caste consisted of educated Chinese - Extension of the Ts'u empire - Annamese connections - Claims repeated 704 B.C. - Capital moved to King-thou Fu near Sha-shi - First Ts'u conquests of China - Five hundred years of struggle with Ts'in for the possession of all China



How far is history true? - Confucius and eclipses - Evidence notwithstanding the destruction of literature in 213 B.C. - Retrospective calculations of eclipses and complications of calendars - Eclipse of 776 B.C. - Errors in Confucian history owing to rival calendars



Paraphernalia of warfare - Ten thousand and one thousand chariot states - Use of war-chariots, leather or wood - Chariots allotted according to rank - Seventy-five men to one cart - War-chariots date back to 1800 B.C. - Tartar house-carts - Rivers mostly unnavigable in north - Introduction of canals and boat traffic - Population and armies - Vague descriptions - Early armies never exceeded 75,000 men - The use of flags - Used in hunting as well as in war - Victims sacrificed to drums - A modern instance of this in 1900 A.D.



The coast states in possession of the Yang-tsz delta - The state of Wu really of the same origin as the imperial dynasty of Chou - Comparison with Phoenician colonists - Wu induced by Tsin to attack Ts'a-Ancient name was Keugu - Wu falls into the whirl of Chinese politics - Confucius and his contemptuous treatment of barbarians-Lu, in South Shan Tung, the place where Confucius held official posts - Great Britain and Duke Confucius - Five ranks for rulers of vassal states - Sacking of the Ts'u capital by Wu in 506 B.C. - Wu's vassal Yueeh turns against Wu - Uviet the native name of Yueeh - Bloody wars between Wu and Yiieh - Extinction of Wu in 483 B.C. - Yueeh was always a coast power - Reasons for Confucius' endeavours to re-establish the old feudal system



The first Hegemon or Protector of China and his own vassal kingdom of Ts'i - Limits of Ts'i and ancient course of the Yellow River - Absence of ancient records - Shiftings of capital in the ninth century B.C. - Emperor's collapse of 842 and its effect upon Ts'i - Aid rendered by Ts'i in suppressing the Tartars - Inconsiderable size of Ts'i - Revenges a judicial murder two centuries old - Rapid rise of Ts'i and services of the statesman - philosopher Kwan-tsz - The governing caste in China - Declares self Protector of China 679 B.C. - Tartar raids down to the Yellow River in Ho Nan-Chinese durbars and the duties of a Protector - Ts'in and Ts'u too far off or too busy for orthodox durbars - Little is now known of the puppet Emperor's dominions - Effeminate character of all the Central Chinese orthodox stales - Fighting instincts all with semi- Chinese states - Struggle for life becoming keener throughout China



Sanctity of envoys - Rivalry of Tsin north and Ts'u south for influence over orthodox centre - The state of CHENG (imperial clan) - The state of Sung (Shang dynasty clan) - Family sacrifices - Instances of envoy treatment - The philosopher Yen-tsz: his irony - The statesman Tsz-ch'an of CHENG - Ts'u's barbarous and callous conduct to envoys - Greed for valuables among high officers - squabble for precedence at Peace Conference - Confucius manipulates history - Yen-&and Confucius together at attempted assassination



Death of First Protector and his henchman Kwan-tsz, 648-643 B.C. - Ts'i succession and Sung's claim to Protectorate - Tartar influence in Ts'i - Ts'u's claim to the hegemony - Ridiculous orthodox chivalry - Great development of Tsin - A much-married ruler - Marriage complications - Interesting story of the political wanderings of the Second Protector - Tries to replace Kwan-tsz deceased - Pleasures of Ts'i life - Mean behaviour of orthodox princes to the Wanderer - Frank attitude of Ts'u - Successive Tartar-born rulers of Tsin, and war with TProtector gains his own Tsin throne - Puppet Emperor at a durbar - Tsin obtains cession of territory - Triangular war between the Powers - Description of the political situation - China 2500 years ago beginning to move as she is now doing again



I'Jo religion except natural religion - Religion not separate from administrative ritual - The titles of "King" and "Emperor" - Prayer common, but most other of our own religious notions absent - Local religion in barbarous states - Distinction between loss and annihilation of power - Ducal rank and marquesses - Distinction between grantee sacrifices and personal sacrifices - Prayer and the ancient Emperor Shun, whose grave is in Hu Nan - Chou Emperor's sickness and brother's written prayer - Offers to sacrifice self - Messages from the dead - Lao-tsz's book - Ts'in and conquered Tsin Sacrifices - Further instances of prayer



Ancestral tablets carried in war-Shrines graduated according to rank - Description of shrines - Specific case of the King of Ts'u - Instance of the First August Emperor much later - Temple of Heaven, Peking, and the British occupation of it - Modern Japanese instance of reporting to Heaven and ancestors - Tsin and Ts'i instances of it - Sacrificial tablets - Writing materials - Lu's special spiritual status - Desecration of tombs and flogging of corpses - Destruction of ancestral temples - Imperial presents of sacrificial meat - Fasting and purification - Intricate mourning rules. So-65



History of Tsin and the Bamboo Annals discovered after 600 years' burial - Confirmatory of Confucius' history - Obsolete and modern script - Ancient calendars - Their evidence in rendering dates precise - The Ts'in calendar imposed on China - Rise of the Ts'in power - Position as Protector - Vast Tartar annexations by Ts'in - Duke Muh of Ts'in and Emperor Muh of China - Posthumous names - Discovery of ancient books - Supposed travels of Emperor Muh to Tartary - Possibility of the Duke Muh having made the journeys - Ts'in and Tsin force Tartars to migrate - Surreptitious vassal "emperors" - Instances of Annam and Japan - Tsin against Ts'in and Ts'u after Second Protector's death - Ts'i never again Protector - Ts'in's Chinese and Tartar advisers - Foundations for Ts'in's future empire.



The Five Protectors of China more exactly defined - No such period as the "Five Tyrant period" can be logically accepted as accurate - Chinese never understand the principles of history as distinct from the detailed facts - International situation defined - Flank movements - Appearance of barbarous Wu in the Chinese arena - Phonetic barbarian names - The State of Wei - Enlightened prince envoy to China from Wu - Wu rapidly acquires the status of Protector - Confucius tampers with history - Risky position of the King of Wu - Yueeh conquers Wu, and poses as Protector - The River Sz (Grand Canal).



Further explanations regarding the grouping of states, and the size of the smallest states - Statesmen of all orthodox states acquainted with one another - No dialect difficulties in ancient times - Records exist for everything - Absence of caste, but persistence of the hereditary idea - The great political economist Kwan-tsz - Tsz-ch'an, the prince-statesman of Cheng - Shuh Hiang, statesman of Tsin - Reference to Appendix No. r - The statesman Yen- tsz of Ts'i - Confucius' origin as a member of the royal Sung family - Confucius' wanderings not so very extensive - Confucius no mere pedant, but a statesman and a humorist - Hiang Suh of Sung, inventor of "Hague" Conferences - Ki-chah, prince-envoy of Wu - K'u- peh-yuh, an authority in Wei - Ts'in had no literary men - Lao-% of Ts'u - Reasons why Confucius does not mention him



Ancient land and land-tax-Combination of military service with land cultivation - Studious class had to study tao (in its pre-Lao-tsz sense) - Next the trading classes - Next the cultivators - Last the handicraftsmen - Another division of the people - Responsibility of rulers to God - Classification of rulers and ruling ranks - Eunuchs and slaves - Cadastral survey in Ts'u state - Reserves for sporting - Cemeteries - Salt-flats Another land and military service system in Ts'u - Kwan-tsz's system in Ts'i - Poor relief - Shrewd diplomacy - His master becomes First Protector - commerce and fairs - "The people" ignored in history - Tsin reforms and administration - The "great family" nuisance - Roads, supplies, post-stages - Ts'i had developed even before Kwan-tsz - Restlessness of active minds under the yoke of ritual.



Very little mention of ancient writing or education - Baked inscribed bricks unknown to the loess region - Cession of land inscribed upon metal - The Nine Tripods - Ts'u claims them - Instances of written grants and prayers - Proof of teaching - A written public notice - Probable use of wood - Conventions upon stone - Books in sixth century B.C. - Maps, cadastre, and census records - A doubtful instance - A closed letter - Indentures - A military map - Treaties - Ancient theory of juvenile education for office - Invention of new-written script 827 B.C. - Patriarchal rule inconsistent with enlightenment - Unification of script, weights, measures, and axle-breadths by the First August Emperor Further invention of script and first dictionary - Facility of Chinese writing for reading purposes - Chinese now in a state of flux.



Treaties and imprecations - Smearing with blood of victims - Squabble re precedence in the treaty-making - Shuh Niang's philosophy - Confucius' tampering with history condoned - Care of Chinese in preserving first-hand evidence - Emperor ignored by treaty-makers - Form of a treaty, with imprecation - Mesne lords and their vassals - Negotiations and references for instructions - Ts'u's first protectorate in 538 - Ts'u's difficulty with Wu - The Six Families of Tsin - Sacrificing cocks as sanction to vows - Drawing human blood as sanction - Pigs for the same purpose - Kwan- tsz's honourable behaviour in keeping treaty - Confucius not so honourable: instances given - Casuistry backed up by a proverb.



Life-time of Confucius - Secret of his influence - Visit of the Wu prince to Confucius' state - Lu's "powerful" family plague - Lu's position between Tsin and Ts'u influences - Ts'i studies the ritual in Lu: Yen-tsz goes thither - Sketch of Lu history in its connection with Confucius - What were his practical objects? - Authorities in support of what Confucius' Annals tell us - Original conception of natural religion - Spread of the earliest patriarchal Chinese state - No other people near them possessed letters - The way in which the Chinese spread - Lines of least resistance - The spiritual emperor compared with some of the Popes - Lu's spiritual position - Confucius of Sung descent, and at first not an influential official in Lu - Lu's humiliation - Ts'i's intrigues to counteract Confucius' genius - Travels of Confucius and his history - His edited works.



Original notion of law - War and punishment on a level - Secondary punishments - Judgment given as each breach occurs - No distinction between legislative and judicial - Private rights ignored by the State - Public weal is Nature's law - First law reform for the Hundred Families - Dr. Legge's translation of the Code - Proclamation of the Emperor's laws - Themistes or decisions - Capricious instances: boiling alive by Emperor - Interference of Emperor in Lu succession - Tsang Wen-chung's coat - Barbarity of the Ts'u laws - Lu's influence with the Emperor - Tsin's engraved laws - Tsz-ch'an's laws on metal in Cheng - Confucius disapproves of published law - English judge-made law - All rulers accepted Chou law - Reading law over sacrificial victim - Laconic ancient laws - Command emanates from the north - Definition of imperial power - The laws of Li K'wei in Ngwei state (part of old Tsin) - Direct influence on modern law.



Engineering works of old Emperors - Marvellous chiselled gorge above Tch'ang - Pa and Shuh kingdoms (= Sz Ch'wan) - The engineer Li Ping in Sz Ch'wan: his sluices still in working order after 2200 years of use - Chinese ideas about the sources of the Yang-tsz - The Lolo country and its independence - The Yellow River and its vagaries - Substitution of the Chou dynasty for the Shang dynasty - First rulers of Wu make a canal - Origin of the Grand Canal - Explanation of the old riverine system of Shan Tung - Extension of the Canal by the First August Emperor - Kublai Khan's share in it - The old Wu capital - Soochow and its ancient arsenals - No bridges in old clays: fords used - Instances - Limited navigability of northern rivers - Various Great Walls - Enormous waste of human life - New Ts'in metropolis - Forced labour and eunuchs.



Ancient cities mere hovels - Soul, the capital of modern Corea - Modern cities still poor affairs - Want of unity causes downfall of Ts'in and China - Magnificence of Ts'i capital - Ts'u's palaces imitated in Lu - The capital of Wu - Modern Soochow - Nothing known of early Ts'in towns - Reforms of Wei Yang in Ts'in - Probable population - Magnificent buildings at new Ts'in metropolis - Facility with which vassal states shifted their capitals - Insignificant size of ancient principalities - Walled cities.



Collapse of Wu, flight in boats to Japan - Ground to believe that the ruling caste of Japan was influenced by Chinese colonists in the fifth century B.C. - Rise of Yueh, and action in China as Protector - Changes in the Hwai River system - Last days of the Chou dynasty - The year 403 B.C. is the second great pivot point in history - Undermining of Ts'i state by the T'ien or Ch'en family - Confucius shocked at the murder of a Ts'i prince - Sudden rise of Ts'in after two centuries of stagnation - The reforms of Wei Yang lead to the conquest of China - Orthodox China compared with Greece - The "Fighting State" Period.



Titles of the Emperors of the Chou dynasty - The word "King" in modern times - Posthumous names - The title "Emperor" and the word "Imperial" - "God" confused with "Emperor" - Lao-tsz's view - Comparison with Babylonia, Egypt, etc. - No feudal prince was recognized by the Emperor as possessing the same title as the Emperor - The Roman Emperors - The five ranks of nobles - The Emperor's private "dukes" compared with cardinals - The state of Lu - The state of Ts'i - The state of Tsin - No race hatreds in China - The state of Wei - Clanship between dynasties - Sacrificial rights - The state of Cheng: a fighting ground for all - The state of Ch'en - Explanation of the term "duke" as applied to all sovereign princes.



The vassal princes of the Chou and previous dynasties - Vassal princes and their relations with the Emperors - Protectors make great show of defending the Emperors rights - The Emperor's sacrifices to God - Rules and rights concerning fees - All China belongs to the Emperor - Peculiar notions about the Emperor's territory - Respect due to imperial envoys - Direct and indirect vassals - Ts'u's group of vassals - Ts'u compared with Macedon - Never subject to the Emperors - Right of passage for armies - Special complimentary use of the term "viscount" - Titles not inherited during mourning - Forms of address - Rival Protectors and their respective subordinate states - Tribute from the states to the Emperor, and presents from the Emperor to the vassal states - The Emperor accepts faits accomplis, and takes what he can get.



Period of fighting states - Tsin divided into Han, Ngwei, and Chao-Ts'in developing herself in Tartary and in Sz Ch'wan - Want of orderly method in Chinese history - How the statesmen of each vassal state developed resources - Ts'in's military development compared with that of Prussia from 1815 to 1870 - "Perpendicular and Horizontal" period - Object to crush Ts'in - Rival claimants for universal empire - First appearance of the Huns or Turks-Helpless position of Old China - Bloody battles in Ts'in's final career of conquest - A million men decapitated - Immense cavalry fights- Ts'in's supreme effort for conquest of China.



Resume of Chinese historical development - General lines of Chinese advance - Methods of Chinese colonization - Equal pedigree claims of half-Chinese states - Tsin and Ts'i were even more ancient than orthodox China - Degree of foreignness in Ts'u-Ts'u native words and music - Ts'u peculiarities-Succession laws in Ts'u and Lu compared - Further evidence of Ts'u's foreign ways - Beards - Titles, posthumous and other - Ts'u admits her own savagery - Ts'u's claim to the Nine Tripods - Ts'u and the Chou rites - Ts'u's gradual civilization - Confucius' admiration of Ts'u - Confucius' style in speaking of barbarians - Distinction between "beat" and "battle" - German distinctions of rank compared with Chinese - The historical honour of "naming" - Vagueness of testimony and the way to test evidence.



The state of Wu - First Chinese princely emigrants adopted barbarian usages - The Jungle country and Wu - Wu's way of doing the hair and Wu's confession of barbarism - Federal China uses Wu against Ts'u - Wu the same language and manners as Yueh - Native Wu words - Wu's ignorance of war - Wu's early isolation - Ts'i enters into marriage relations with Wu - Mencius objects retrospectively - Wu ruling caste - The Wu language - Succession laws of Wu - A Wu prince's views on the soul - Confucius' views on ghosts - Ki-chah's intimacy with orthodox statesmen - Rumours of Early Japan - Japan and Wu tattooing customs alike - Japanese traditions of a connection with Wu - Dangers of etymological guess-work - Doubts about racial matters in Wu - Small value of Japanese history and tradition - General conclusions.



Small size of ancient China - Description of ancient nucleus and surrounding barbarians - Amount of foreign element in each vassal state - Policy of the Ts'i and Lu administrations - The savage tribes of the eastern coasts - Persistency of some down to 970 A.D. - Ts'in's unliterary quality - Her human sacrifices - Her Turkish blood - Late influence of the Emperors over Ts'in - Ts'in's gradual civilization - Ki-chah on Ts'in music - Ts'u treats Ts'in as barbarian still in 361 B.C. - Ts'in's isolation previous to 326 B.C. - Tartar rule of succession at one time in Ts'in - Yiieh's barbarism - Its able king - Native name - Mushroom existence as a power - The various branches of the Yiieh race in Foochow, W&chow, and Tonquin - Wu and Yiieh spoke the same language - Ruling caste of Wu - Stern military discipline in Wu and Yiieh - Neither state proved to have had human sacrifices - Crawling customs - Ancient Chinese descent of rulers - Yiieh's later capital in the German sphere - Her power always marine.



Literary relations between vassal states - Confucius set the ball of philosophy a-rolling - The fourfold "Bible" of China - Odes were generally known by heart - Comparison with President Kruger and his texts - Quotations from Odes and Book enable us to fix dates - Books were heavy weights in those days - People trusted to memory - The Rites more exclusively understood by the ruling classes - Comparison with Johnsonian wits - Instances cited, with side proofs - History and Classics corroborate each other-Evidences - Confucius' ancestor composes odes - Political song by the children of Tsin - Another still-existing ode in reference to the Second Protector - Ts'u's early literary knowledge - General knowledge of Odes and History - Ignorance of Ts'in-Ts'in ancient documents the only ones now remaining - First definite notion of abolishing the feudal system - The pivot point 403 B.C. - Ts'in's conquests in north, south, east, and west - The First August Emperor's travels - Lao-tsz's Taoist philosophy becomes fashionable - Ts'in's hatred of orthodox literature, and of the Odes and Book in particular - The Book of Changes escapes his hatred - Revolutionary decree of the First August Emperor-Lost annals of all feudal states but Ts'in - Learned Tartars of Tsin-Confucius used Tsin annals too - Origin of the name Shi-ki, or "Historical Annals" - Further evidence of lost histories - Curious name for Ts'u Annals - Ts'u poetry- Ts'u's knowledge of past history - The term "Springs and Autumns" - Baldness of early Chinese annals.



Whence did the Chinese come? - All men of equal age and ancestry - Records make civilization and nobility - Evidences of antiquity - China and the West totally unknown to each other in ancient times - Tartars the connecting link - Though tamed by religion they are not much changed now - Traders then, as now, but no through travellers - Chinese probably in China for myriads of years before their records began - Tonic peculiarities of all tribes near China except the Tartars - Chinese followed lines of least resistance - Tartars driven back, but difficult to absorb - So with Coreans and Japanese-Indo-China not so favourable for Chinese absorption - Records decided the direction taken by culture - Southern half- Chinese have equal claims with orthodox Chinese - Traditions of ancient emperors in north, coast, and south parts - Suggestions as to how the most ancient Chinese spread themselves - No hint of immigration from anywhere - The old suggestion of immigration from the Tarim Valley and Babylonia - Suggested compromise with Western religious views - Creation and Nature - Compromise with the supernatural and imaginative - Summing up.



The Chinese calendar - Confucius and eclipses - Proclaiming the new moon - Celestial observations in different states - Chinese year is luni-Solar - Difficulty with the exact length of a moon - Ingenious devices for bringing the solar and lunar years, the seasons, solstices, and equinoxes into harmony with agricultural needs - The sixty-year cycle - Various reforms of the calendar, and various changes in the month beginning the year - Effect of calendar changes on Confucius' birthday - All is evidence in favour of accuracy of the Chinese records.



The difficulty of proper names - Instances-Clans and detached families - Surnames and personal names - Strange personal appellations - Interchange of names by all states - Eunuchs and priests-Minute rules about "naming" individuals - Confucius conveys praise or censure by "naming" persons - The principles upon which several names are applied to one person - Tabu-Instances, and Roman parallel - The Duke of Chou virtual founder of posthumous name system - Dying king and posthumous choice of name - Incestuous marriages in own clan - Hushing up incest in high places - Complication of names connected - Bearing of names upon the political events connected therewith.



Eunuchs and their origin - criminals with feet chopped off as keepers - Noseless criminals for isolated picket duty - The branded were gate-keepers - Eunuchs for the harem - "Purified men" - Comparative antiquity of Persia and China - Eunuchs in Tsin - Ts'i eunuchs and Confucius - Eunuchs in Wu - Ts'u's uses for eunuchs - Eunuch intrigues in connection with the First August Emperor - The First Emperor's putative father - His works - Eunuch witnesses assassination of Second August Emperor - General employ of eunuchs in China - Human sacrifices in Ts'in and Ts'u: also in Ts'i - Doubts as to its existence in orthodox China - Han Emperor's prohibition - No fruit wine in ancient China - Spirits universal - Vice around ancient China rather than in it - Instances of heavy drinking in Ts'i and Ts'u - Tsin drinking - Confucius and liquor - Drinking in Ts'in - Ancient Chinese were meat-eaters - Horse-flesh and Tartars - Horse-liver in Prussia - Anecdote of Duke Muh and the hippophagi - Bears' paws as food - Elephants in Ts'u - Dogs as food.



The Emperor Muh's voyages to the West in 984 B.C. - The question of destroyed state annals-Exaggerated importance of the expedition, even if facts true - King Muh's father was killed in a similar expedition - Discovery of the Bamboo Books of 299 B.C. in 281 A.D. - Imaginary interpretations put upon King Muh's expedition by European critics - The Queen of Sheba - Professor Chavannes attributes the travels of Duke Muh of Ts'in 650 B.C. - Description of first journey - Along the great road to Lob Nor-Modern evidence that he got as far as Urumtsi - Six hundred days, or 12,000 miles - Specific evidence as to distance travelled each day - Various Tartar incidents of the journey - The Emperor's infatuation on the second journey - Lieh-tsz, the Taoist philosopher, on the Emperor Muh's travels - Arguments qualifying M. Chavannes' view that Duke Muh, and not the Emperor Muh, undertook the journeys.



Wu kingdom - Name begins 585 B.C. - This is the year Japanese "history" begins - The first king and his four sons - Prince Ki-chah - War with Ts'u and sacking of its capital - King Fu-ch'ai and his wars against Yiieh - Offered an asylum in Chusan - Suicide of Fu-ch'ai - Escape of his family across the seas to Japan - China knew nothing of Japan, even if Wu did - Story reduced to its true proportions - Traces of prehistoric men in Japan - Possible movements of original inhabitants - Existing evidence better than none at all - East from Ningpo must be Japan - Like early Greeks and Egyptian colonists - Natural impulses to emigration - Refugees from China compared to Will Adams - Natural desire to improve pedigrees - No shame to Japan's ruling caste to hail from China - European comparisons - How the Japanese manufactured their past history - Imagination must be kept separate from evidence.



Peculiar customs - Formalities of surrender - A number of instances of succession rules - Status of wives-Cases where the Emperor himself breaks the rules - Instances of irregular succession in various states - Customs of war - Cutting off the left ear as trophy - Rewards for heads - Principles of facing north and south - Turning towards Mecca - Left and Right princes - Modern instances of official seating - North and south facing houses - Chivalrous rules about mourning - Funeral missions - The feudal yearnings of Confucius explained - Respect even of barbarians for mourning - Many other quaint instances of funeral and mourning rules - Promises made to a dying non compos of no avail - Mencius and the diplomatists.



Rights of women in ancient China - The legal rule and the actual fact - Instances of irregularity in female status, both in ancient and modern China - Instances of incest and irregular marriage even in orthodox states-Women, once married, not to come back - The much-married Second Protector - Hun and Turk customs about taking over Wives - Clan marriages of doubtful legality - Succession rules - Ts'u irregularities and caprice - Elder brothers by inferior wives - Paranymphs, or under-studies of the wife - Women always under some man's power - Incestuous fathers - Lex Julia introduced into Yiieh by its vengeful King - The evil morals of the Shanghai-Ningpo region of ancient Yiieh - No prostitution in ancient China, except perhaps in Ts'i - No infanticide - Incest and names.



Orthodox China compared with orthodox Greece - Our persistent "traditions" about the Tower of Babel and the Tarim Valley-Wu, Yiieh, and ancient traditions - The "Tribute of Yii" says nothing of Western origin of Chinese - No ancient knowledge of the West, nor of South China - The Blackwater River and the Emperor Muh - The "Tribute of Yii" says nothing of the supposed Western emigration of the Chinese - Some traditions of Chinese migrations from the south - Traditions of enfeoffment of vassals in Corea, about 1122 B.C. - Knowledge of China as defined by the First Protector, and as visited by the Second in the seventh century B.C. - Evidence of the Emperor's limited knowledge of China in 670 B.C. - Yiieh first appears in 536 B.C. - Tsin never saw the sea till 589 B.C. - Ts'i's ignorance of the south-u, Yiieh, and Ts'u all purely Yang-tsz riverine states - Ts'u alone knew the south - CHENG's ignorance of the south - Ts'u and orthodox China of the same ancient stock - Tsin's ignorance of Central China - Tsin defines Chinese limits for Ts'u - Ancient orthodox nucleus was the "Central State," a name still employed to mean "China" as a whole.



Evidences still remaining in the shape of the tombs of great historical personages - Elephants used to work at the Wu tombs - Royal Ts'u tomb desecrated - Relics of 1122 B.C. found in Lu - Ts'in destitute of relics - Confucius and the Duke of Chou's relics - Each generation of Chinese sees and doubts not of its own antiquities - No reason for European scepticism - Native critics know much more than we do.



From ancient times Tartars intimately connected with the Chinese - How the Chou state had to migrate to avoid the Tartars - Chou ancestors had originally fled from China to the Tartars - Chou family's subsequent dealings with the Tartars - How Ts'in replaced Chou as the semi-Tartar or westernmost state of China - Tartars for many centuries in possession of Yellow River north bank - Once extended to Kiang Su province - Confucius' knowledge of the Tartars - Tartar attacks in the eighth and seventh centuries B.C. - Causes of the Protector system - Incompetence of Emperors to stave off Tartar attacks - Ts'i's extensive relations with the Tartars - The Second Protector and his adviser - Rude treatment of the Second Protector by the orthodox Chinese states - Ts'u's bluff hospitality - Second Protector had to check Chinese instead of Tartar ambitions - Tsin's Tartar admixture - Comparison with Roman adventurers - How Tartars have in modern times ruled China and Asia.



Music in Chinese life - Confucius' present dwelling and the ancient instruments therein - Comparison with Wagner's Ring - Musicians as corrupters of simplicity - Tsin and Ts'in dialects - Music as an adjunct to government - Confucius' views on music - Ts'u music - The effect of music on the mind - Rewards in the shape of right to play certain tunes - The Emperor Muh's music - Music coupled with soothsaying - Lao-tsz on benevolence and justice-Playing the banjo - Music at sacrifice or worship - Modern abstinence from music - First August Emperor compared with Saul and his music.



Ancient and modern ideas of wealth - Ts'in and Ts'u valuables - Furniture - Mats and divans - Tea and wine - Tartar couches - Inlaid ivory sofas - State treasure - Wealth in horses-Silks and furs in Tsin and Ts'u - Women as property - Pearls and jade as portable property - A Chinese Crocesus - Escape by sea to Shan Tung - Gold as money - Bribery with "metal" - Iron and gold mines in Wu - Fine Wu swords - "Cash" as coins - Ts'u money - Weight of a gold piece - Cooks important personages - "Meat-eaters" meant the ruling classes - Silk universal - Poor wore hemp - No cotton - Ts'in custom of wearing swords - Jade marks of rank - Sports - Egret fights-war hunts - Horses in Peking plain - Hunting chariots and "shaft-gates" - Yamen, ya, and Turkish encampments - Cockfighting-Lifting heavy weights - Ball games - Women at looms - Little said of family life - No homely pastimes - No squeezed feet - Helplessness of the people under their taskmasters.



Confucius - His merits - His imperial and ducal origin - Migration of his family from Sung to Lu - His warrior father - His quaint childish fancies - Lu officer foretells his greatness - His first pupils - His appointment as steward - His visit to Laos - No reason for mentioning this visit in history - Neither philosopher yet "great" - Lu in a quandary - Helplessness of the Emperor under Tsin, Ts'i, and Ts'u pressure - Yen-tsz sees Confucius, and discusses Ts'in's greatness - Studying the Rites at Lu-Date of Confucius' visit to Lao-tsz - Struggle of great families for popular rights - Confucius offers services to Ts'i - Examines Rites of Hia - Yen- tsz's jealousy of Confucius - Confucius back in Lu - His literary labours - His official posts and his views on law - Ts'i overborne by Wu - Ts'i's attempt at assassination defeated by Confucius' diplomacy - Treaty between Lu and Ts'i - Civil war in Lu - Confucius Premier - Successful administration - Confucius leaves Lu in disgust - His treatment in Wei state - Leaves Wei, but returns to old friend there - Confucius' suspicious visit to a lady - Leaves disgusted via Sung for Ts'ao - Visits to Cheng (mistaken for Tsz-ch'an) and Ch'en - A prey to rival ambitions - Episode of the Manchurian bustard - Revisits Wei - Arrested; solemn promise broken - Base behaviour - Starts to visit Tsin - Confucius' enemy repents - Arrangements to get Confucius back to Lu - He first visits Ts'ai- Excursion to Ts'u - Three years more in Ts'ai - T-s'u's literary status - Competition amongst princes for Confucius' services - Confucius and war - Reaches Lu after fourteen years of wandering - Confucius' travels the same as the Second Protector's - Consoles himself with literature - Popularizes history-Edits the Changes and the Odes - His history - The Tso Chwan.



Historians had to be careful - Reverence for rulers - Confucius' feelings - His failings - All on the surface - His concealments - His artful censures - Sanctity of the classes - Confucius' meannesses and indiscretions - Allowances must be made for time and place - Tsz-ch'an quite as good a man - Reasons for permanency of Confucian system - Reasons for Lao-tsz not being mentioned - All Chinese statesman-philosophers were, or tried to be, practical - First mention of Lao-tsz's new Taoism - Lao-tsz well known 400 B.C. - State intercourse before Confucius' time - Philosophy taught by word of mouth - Cheapening of books accounts for spread of knowledge - Description of ancient books - Confucius was young when he visited Lao-tsz - Lao-tsbook in ancient character - Meagreness of details evidence of rigid truth - Obscurity of the Emperor - Difficult questions of fact answered - How Lao-tsz was visited - Proofs of genuineness - Originals must be studied by foreign critics.



Consulting the oracles - The Changes, or Book of Diagrams - Ts'u and Ts'i as instructors of Chou - Tortoise augury - Consulting ancestors - Heaven's decree - Heaven's spontaneous, manifestations of favour - Astrology - Prognostication - Text of the Changes survives unmutilated - Ts'in consults oracles about moving capital - Ts'in's greatness foretold - Omens - Dies nin the battlefield - Prophecy in Tsin, Ts'u, and Lu - Shuh Hiang's scepticism - Tsz-ch'an and the omen of fighting snakes - Children sing prophetic songs - "Passing on" threatened evil - Tortoise oracles in Ts'o and Wu - High status of diviners-"-Transferring" evil in Ts'u - Rivers as gods - Our own prophecies - Good faith and truth.



Personal character of wars - People's interests ignored - Instances - Comparisons with the Golden Fleece and Naboth's vineyard - Second Protector avenges scurvy treatment - The halt, the maim, and the blind - Jephthah's rash vow-Divinity of kings - Ts'u more tyrannical than China - Responsibility of Chinese before Heaven - The King can do no wrong - Emperors reign under Heaven - Heaven in the confidence of rulers - Sacred person of kings - Distinction between official and private death - Double chivalry of a Tsin general - The gods and Tsz-ch'an's scepticism.




[For the illustration of the Wuchuan vase, and the inscription thereon, I am indebted to Dr. S. W. Bushell M.D., from whose work on "Chinese Art" (vol. i. p. 82) the plates (kindly lent by H.M. Stationery Office) are taken. For the photograph of the Duke of "Propagating Holiness" (i.e. Confucius) I am indebted to the Jesuit Fathers of Shanghai, and to Father Tschepe, who obtained it from his Grace.]

1. Tripod of the Chou dynasty, date 8l2 B.C. In 1565 A.D. it was placed by the owner for safety in a temple on Silver Island (near Chinkiang), where it may be seen now.

Taken (by kind permission of the author) from Dr. S. W. Bushell's "Chinese Art," vol. i. p. 82. Frontispiece

2. K'ung Ling-i, the hereditary Yen-sheng Kung, or "Propagating Holiness Duke"; 76th in descent from K'ung K'iu, alias K'ung Chung-ni, the original philosopher, 551-479 B.C.

This portrait was presented to "the priest P'eng" (Father Tschepe, S.J.), on the occasion of his visit last autumn (7th moon, 33rd year). To face page 81

3. Original inscription on the Sacrificial Tripod, together with (1) transcription in modern Chinese character (to the right), and (2) an account of its history (to the left). Taken from Dr. Bushell's "Chinese Art".


1. The other small maps will explain each section more in detail.

2. This map is intended to give a general idea of the extremely limited area of the empire in the sixth century B.C.

3. Like the modern Sultan, the Chow Emperor was gradually driven into a corner, surrounded by Bulgarias, Servias, Egypts, and other countries once under his effective rule; and, like the Sultan, the Chou Emperor remained spiritual head for many centuries after the practical dismemberment of his empire.

4. Until quite recent times, the true source of the Yang-tsz had been unknown to the Chinese, and the River Min has been, and even still is, considered to be the chief head-water. It flows through the rich country of ancient Shuh, now the administrative centre of Sz Ch'wan province.

5. Even now the Yang-tsz River is practically the only great route from China into Sz Ch'wan, and in ancient times the rapids were probably not negotiable by large craft.

6. The land routes into Sz Ch'wan from the head-waters of the Wei and Ilan Rivers are all extremely precipitous. It was not until 200 B.C. that any military road was attempted.

7. Ancient China meant the Yellow River. Then the Han and the Hwai. Next the Yang-tsz. Last the Sz Ch'wan tributaries of the Yang-tsz. It was through the lakes and rivers south of the Yang- tsz that China at last colonized the south.