CHAPTER V. THE DYNASTY OF THE TARQUINS.
Of the seven traditional kings of Rome, the last three were undoubtedly of Etruscan origin, and their reigns left in the city many traces of Etruscan influence. The Etruscans were great builders, and the only buildings of importance that Rome possessed, until a much later period, were erected under this dynasty. The names of these kings are said to have been LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, SERVIUS TULLIUS, his son-in-law, and LUCIUS TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS.
Under the first of these kings were built the fine temple of JUPITER CAPITOLÍNUS, on the Capitoline Hill, and near by shrines to JUNO and MINERVA. This temple to Jupiter was called the CAPITOLIUM, and from it we get our word CAPITOL. It was looked upon as the centre of Roman religion and authority, and at times the Senate was convened in it.
During this reign the famous CLOÁCA MAXIMA, or great sewer intended to drain the Campagna, is also said to have been constructed. This sewer was so well built that it is still used.
Under the second king of this dynasty, Servius Tullius, the city was surrounded with a wall, which included the Palatine, Quirínal, Coelian, and Aventine hills, and also the Janiculum, which was on the opposite side of the river, and connected with the city by a bridge (pons sublicius).
The establishment of the new military organization, mentioned in the previous chapter, was attributed also to this king.
The pupil will notice the similarity between these reforms of Tullius and those of Solon of Athens, who lived about the same time. Thus early was the Greek influence felt at Rome.
During the reign of Tullius a temple in honor of DIÁNA was erected on the Aventine, to be used by all the Latin towns.
Tarquinius Superbus added to the AGER ROMÁNUS the territory of the city of GABII, and planted two military colonies, which were afterwards lost. The dynasty of the Tarquins ended with the overthrow of this king, and a Republic was established, which lasted until the death of Julius Caesar.