CHAPTER XIV. THE RISE OF THE WAGE EARNER
The Documentary History of American Industrial Society (10 vols., 1910-1911), contains a little documentary material on the period after 1865; J.R. Commons and others, History of Labour in the United States (2 vols., 1918), is the best and most recent historical account; T.S. Adams and H.L. Sumner, Labor Problems (1905), is useful; consult also R.T. Ely, Labor Movement in America (3rd ed., 1890); C.D. Wright, The Industrial Evolution of the United States (1897), by a practical expert; G.E. McNeill, The Labor Movement (1887); J.R. Buchanan, Story of a Labor Agitator (1903); S.P. Orth, The Armies of Labor (1919), contains a good bibliography; John Mitchell, Organized Labor (1903); T.V. Powderly, Thirty Years of Labor (1890); Quarterly Journal of Economics (Jan., 1887), Knights of Labor; J.H. Bridge, Inside History of the Carnegie Steel Co. (1903). On the Haymarket affair, compare Century Magazine (Apr., 1893), and J.P. Altgeld, Reasons for Pardoning Fielden, Neebe and Schwab; on the Pullman strike, Grover Cleveland, Presidential Problems, and the report of the commission of investigation in Senate Executive Documents, 53rd Congress, 3rd session, vol. 2 (Serial Number 3276). Edward Stanwood, History of the Presidency, contains political platform planks on labor. The reports of the Commissioner of Labor (1886-), and of the state bureaus of statistics of labor in such states as Massachusetts (1870-), and New York (1884-), are essential for the investigator.
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 Cf. above, p. 64
 Two earlier organizations had a brief existence, the National Labor Union and the Industrial Brotherhood.
 Above, pp. 133-134.
 For the effect on the Knights of Labor, see p. 310.
 For the legal side of this matter, consult Wright, Industrial Evolution, 278-282.
 The Court based its action mainly on the provisions of Section 2 of the Sherman anti-trust law, which thus had an unforeseen effect. The Supreme Court upheld the action, although on broader grounds. Above, p. 256, cf. 159 U.S. Reports, 564.
 In 1893 the "World's Fair" in Chicago had celebrated the four hundredth anniversary of the landing of Columbus, and many of the criminals attracted by the event had remained in the city.