CHAPTER XXV. THE UNITED STATES AND THE WORLD WAR
 War was declared against Austria on December 7, 1917. The United States was followed immediately by Cuba and Panama, and before the close of the year by Siam, Liberia, China and Brazil. Many other Central and South American states severed relations with Germany and before the close of the struggle several of them declared war.
 The purpose and effect of Wilson's patient foreign policy were briefly expressed by Joseph H. Choate, a Republican advocate of early entry into the war, in a speech in New York on April 25, 1917. Choate declared that a declaration of war after the sinking of the Lusitania would have resulted in a divided country and remarked: "But we now see what the President was waiting for and how wisely he waited. He was waiting to see how fast and how far the American people would keep pace with him and stand up for any action that he proposed."
 An official of the War Department estimated that the lumber used in the sixteen cantonments if made into sidewalks would go four times around the world.
 Roumania had entered the conflict in August, 1916, but had been immediately overrun, her capital Bucharest taken in December, and that country rendered no longer important before the entrance of America.
 The earlier draft law resulted in about 11,000,000 registrants. The draft ages were 21-30 years. Under the later law the ages were 18-45.
The so-called Training Detachments had already been established, providing for the training of mechanics, carpenters, electricians, telegraphers, and other necessary skilled artisans at a number of colleges and scientific institutions.
Almost coincidently with the expansion of the army came an epidemic of the Spanish influenza. Hitherto the health of the army had been extraordinarily good, but the epidemic was so widespread and so malignant in its attack that during eight weeks there were more than twice as many deaths as in the entire army for the year preceding.
 By November 11, 26,059 prisoners and 847 guns had been captured and at one point near Sedan the American advance had covered twenty-five miles. 1,200,000 American troops had been engaged and the weight of the ammunition fired was greater than that used by the Union armies during the entire Civil War. In November the American army held twenty-two per cent. of the western front. The losses of the A.E.F. during the entire period of its activities up to November 18, 1918, were by death 53,160; the wounded numbered 179,625.
 An armistice had been signed with Turkey on October 31, and with Austria on November 4.
 Something little short of a revolution in American international relations was taking place when the President of the United States received in Paris lists of callers such as that mentioned in the newspapers of May 17, 1919:
Prince Charron of the Siamese delegation; Dr. Markoff, of the
Carpatho-Russian Committee; M. Ollivier, President of the French
National Union of Railwayman; M. Jacob, a representative of the
Celtic Circle of Paris; Messrs. Bureo and Jacob of the Uruguyan
delegation; Turkhan Pasha, the Albanian leader; Enrique Villegas,
former Foreign Minister of Chile; Foreign Minister Benez and M.
Kramer, of the Czecho-slovak delegation, to discuss the question
of Silesia and Teschen; Deputy Damour, concerning the American
commemorative statue to be erected in the Gironde River; a
delegation from the Parliament of Kuban, Northern Caucasus; the
Archbishop of Trebizond, Joseph Reinach, the French historian, and
Governor Richard L. Manning of South Carolina.
 The Secretary of War estimated the total of all these groups at 13,650.000
 The Eighteenth Amendment is as follows: Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
Section 2. The Congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the states by the Congress.
 As the Congress that which had been elected in 1918, the Senate was controlled by the Republicans.