CHAPTER VIII. FEDERAL SUPREMACY (1793-1801).

81. REFERENCES.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES. - W. E. Foster, References to Presidential Administrations, 1-8; Justin Winsor, Narrative and Critical History, VII. 294-314, 319, 320, 329-336, 454-456, 513-519; Channing and Hart, Guide, secs. 162, 166.

HISTORICAL MAPS. - Nos. 1, 4, this volume (Epoch Maps, Nos. 7, 9); MacCoun, Historical Geography; Scribner, Statistical Atlas, Plate 13; J. Morse, American Geography.

GENERAL ACCOUNTS. - J. B McMaster, United States, II. 89-557; H. Von Holst, Constitutional History, I. 112-167; J. Schouler, United States, I. 221-501; R. Hildreth, United States, IV. 411-704; V. 25-418; T. Pitkin, United States, II. 356-500 (to 1797); George Tucker, United States, I. 504-628, II. 21-145; Bryant and Gay, Popular History, IV. 123-144; Bradford, Constitutional History, 125-201.

SPECIAL HISTORIES. - Standard lives of Washington, especially Sparks, Marshall, and Irving; C. F. Adams, Life of John Adams; Henry Adams, Albert Gallatin; H. C. Lodge, Washington, II. 129-269; J. T. Morse, Jefferson, 146-208, and John Adams, 241-310; G. Pellew, John Jay, 262-339; S. H. Gay, Madison, 193-251; George Gibbs, Administrations of Washington and Adams, I., II.; W. H. Trescott, Diplomatic History; T. Lyman, Diplomacy; J. C. Hamilton, Republic, V., VI.

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTS. - Thomas Jefferson, Anas (Works, IX. 185-203); William Sullivan, Familiar Letters on Public Characters, 48-187 (written in reply to Jefferson); Works of Washington, Jefferson, Fisher Ames, John Jay, Rufus King, Arthur St. Clair, John Adams, Madison, and Gallatin; Abigail Adams, Letters ; W. Winterbotham, Historical View (1795); T. Cooper, Some Information respecting America (1793, 1794); Rochefoucault-Liancourt, Voyage dans les Etats-Unis (1795-1797) (also in translation); J. Weld, Travels through the States (1795-1797); newspapers, especially General Advertiser and Aurora, Boston Gazette. - Reprints in Alexander Johnston, American Orations, I.; American History told by Contemporaries, III.

82. FORMATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES (1792-1794).

[Origin of parties.]

During the four uneventful years from 1789 to 1793 two political parties had been slowly developed. Some writers have imagined that these two parties were a survival of the Revolutionary Whigs and Tories; some have traced them back to the debate on the assumption of State debts. John Adams, years later, went to the heart of the matter when he said: "You say our divisions began with Federalism and anti-Federalism. Alas! they began with human nature." The foundation for the first two great national parties was a difference of opinion as to the nature and proper functions of the new government.

During the second Congress, from 1791 to 1793, arose an opposition to Hamilton which gradually consolidated into a party. It came chiefly from the Southern and Middle States, and represented districts in which there was little capital or trade. Arrayed among his supporters were most of the representatives from New England, and many from the Middle States and South Carolina: they represented the commercial interests of the country; they desired to see the debt funded and the State debts assumed; they began to act together as another party.

[Hamilton and Jefferson.]