CHAPTER X. THE UNION IN DANGER (1809-1815).

106. REFERENCES.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES. - W. E. Foster, References to Presidential Administrations, 12-15; J. Winsor, Narrative and Critical History, VII. 320-323, 341-343, 420-437, 457-460, 522-524; Channing and Hart, Guide, secs. 170-173.

HISTORICAL MAPS. - Nos. 1 and 4, this volume (Epoch Maps, Nos. 7 and 9); T. MacCoun, Historical Geography; Henry Adams, United States, VI, VII., VIII., passim; Anderson, Canada (1814); Arrowsmith, Map of the United States (1813); Scribner, Statistical Atlas, Plate 14; school histories of Channing, Johnston, Scudder, and Thomas.

GENERAL ACCOUNTS - R. Hildreth, United States, VI. 149-674; H. Von Hoist, Constitutional History, I 226-272; J. Schouler, United States, II. 194-444; J. B. McMaster, United States, III. 339-560 (to 1812), IV.; Bryant and Gay, Popular History, IV. 185-244; Geo. Tucker, United States, II. 349-515, III. 21-145; Bradford, Constitutional History, I. 330-410.

SPECIAL HISTORIES. - Henry Adams, History of the United States, V.- IX.; C. Schurz, Henry Clay, I. 38-137; S. H. Gay, James Madison, 283- 337; C. J. Ingersoll, Historical Sketch of the Second War; T. Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812; J. Armstrong, Notices of the War of 1812; B. J. Lossing, Pictorial Field-book of the War of 1812; H. M Brackenridge, History of the Late War ; William Jones,Military Occurrences and Naval Occurrences ; E. S. Maclay, United States Navy.

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTS - J. Q. Adams, Memoirs, II, III. (ch. ix); S. G Goodrich, Recollections, I. 435-514, II. 9-60; Dolly Madison, Memoirs and Letters; John Randolph, Letters to a Young Relative; S. Leech, Thirty Years from Home (by a seaman of the Macedonian); W. Cobbett, Pride of Britannia Humbled (1815); Coggeshall, History of the American Privateers; William Sullivan,Familiar Letters on Public Characters, 290-355; Timothy Dwight, History of the Hartford Convention. Works of Jefferson, Madison, Gallatin, Dallas, Clay. - Reprints in M. Carey, Olive Branch; A. Johnston, American Orations, I, American History told by Contemporaries, III.

107. NON-INTERCOURSE LAWS (1809, 1810).

[Madison's administration.]

James Madison, who became President March 4, 1809, felt that his administration was to be a continuation of that of Jefferson; and he took over three members of Jefferson's cabinet, including Gallatin. The Secretary of State, Robert Smith, was incapable, and Madison was practically his own foreign minister.

[The situation abroad.]

The condition of European affairs was, on the whole, favorable to America. In 1807 Russia had formed an alliance with France and had accepted the Continental System, thus cutting off American trade; but in 1808 the French lost ground in Spain, and the Spanish and Portuguese ports were thus opened to American commerce. Nevertheless a hundred and eight merchantmen were captured by England in 1808.

[Non-intercourse Act.] [Favorable trade.]