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Canada

The ten years following 1663 form a decade of extraordinary progress in the history of New France. The population of the colony had trebled, and now numbered approximately seven thousand; the red peril, thanks to Tracy's energetic work, had been lessened; while the fur trade had grown to large and lucrative proportions. With this increase in population and prosperity, there came a renaissance of enthusiasm for voyages of exploration and for the widening of the colony's frontiers. Glowing reports went home to the King concerning the latent possibilities of the New World.

The greatest and most enduring achievement of Frontenac's first term was the exploration of the territory southwestward of the Great Lakes and the planting of French influence there. This work was due, in large part, to the courage and energy of the intrepid La Salle. Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, like so many others who followed the fleur-de-lis into the recesses of the new continent, was of Norman birth and lineage. Rouen was the town of his nativity; the year 1643 probably the date of his birth.

Nearly all that was distinctive in the life of old Canada links itself in one way or another with the Catholic religion. From first to last in the history of New France the most pervading trait was the loyalty of its people to the church of their fathers. Intendants might come and go; governors abode their destined hour and went their way; but the apostles of the ancient faith never for one moment released their grip upon the hearts and minds of the Canadians.

More than two centuries have elapsed since the Hurons vanished from their ancient seats, and the settlers of this rude solitude stand perplexed and wondering over the relics of a lost people. In the damp shadow of what seems a virgin forest, the axe and plough bring strange secrets to light: huge pits, close packed with skeletons and disjointed bones, mixed with weapons, copper kettles, beads, and trinkets. Not even the straggling Algonquins, who linger about the scene of Huron prosperity, can tell their origin.

 DU PERON'S JOURNEY. - DAILY LIFE OF THE JESUITS. - 
 THEIR MISSIONARY EXCURSIONS. - CONVERTS AT OSSOSSANE. - 
 MACHINERY OF CONVERSION. - CONDITIONS OF BAPTISM. - BACKSLIDERS. - 
 THE CONVERTS AND THEIR COUNTRYMEN. - THE CANNIBALS AT ST. JOSEPH.

 ST. LOUIS ON FIRE. - INVASION. - ST. IGNACE CAPTURED. - 
 BREBEUF AND LALEMANT. - BATTLE AT ST. LOUIS. - SAINTE MARIE THREATENED. - 
 RENEWED FIGHTING. - DESPERATE CONFLICT. - A NIGHT OF SUSPENSE. - 
 PANIC AMONG THE VICTORS. - BURNING OF ST. IGNACE. - 
 RETREAT OF THE IROQUOIS.

And now, before entering upon the very curious subject of Indian social and tribal organization, it may be well briefly to observe the position and prominent distinctive features of the various communities speaking dialects of the generic tongue of the Iroquois. In this remarkable family of tribes occur the fullest developments of Indian character, and the most conspicuous examples of Indian intelligence. If the higher traits popularly ascribed to the race are not to be found here, they are to be found nowhere.

 A CHANGE OF PLAN. - SAINTE MARIE. - MISSION OF THE TOBACCO NATION. - 
 WINTER JOURNEYING. - RECEPTION OF THE MISSIONARIES. - 
 SUPERSTITIOUS TERRORS. - PERIL OF GARNIER AND JOGUES. - 
 MISSION OF THE NEUTRALS. - HURON INTRIGUES. - MIRACLES. - 
 FURY OF THE INDIANS. - INTERVENTION OF SAINT MICHAEL. - 

 THE RUINS OF ST. IGNACE. - THE RELICS FOUND. - BREBEUF AT THE STAKE. - 
 HIS UNCONQUERABLE FORTITUDE. - LALEMANT. - RENEGADE HURONS. - 
 IROQUOIS ATROCITIES. - DEATH OF BREBEUF. - HIS CHARACTER. - 
 DEATH OF LALEMANT.

In Indian social organization, a problem at once suggests itself. In these communities, comparatively populous, how could spirits so fierce, and in many respects so ungoverned, live together in peace, without law and without enforced authority? Yet there were towns where savages lived together in thousands with a harmony which civilization might envy. This was in good measure due to peculiarities of Indian character and habits. This intractable race were, in certain external respects, the most pliant and complaisant of mankind.

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